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As a result of changes that quickened considerably in the 12th century, the maenor organization of Welsh society was superseded by new forms designed to ensure a more intensive exploitation of the soil. Methodism and Dissent were not the only influences at work in 18th-century Wales. Shortly afterward, on December 11, Llywelyn was slain in combat, and the resistance, though sustained by his brother David ap Gruffydd died for several months, finally collapsed in the summer of Besides their judicial functions, the justices undertook a wide range of administrative duties, which they continued to fulfill until, with the reform of local government by the Local Government Act of , the county councils were established. But the council fell into abeyance during the Civil Wars and was finally abolished after the Glorious Revolution — The rebellion, however, quickened certain processes that were to lead ultimately to the enfranchisement provided by Tudor legislation.
The History of Gruffydd ap Cynan, probably written in the reign of his son Owain Gwynedd, provides a classic statement of the political and cultural values of independent Wales. With regard to lands held by freemen, a trend toward more intensive agricultural exploitation and a more precise definition of fiscal obligations may explain the description in late medieval land surveys of territorial assets vested in lineages that often traced their descent from a 12th-century ancestor. The Act for the Propagation of the Gospel in Wales set up a coercive authority encompassing both political and religious life, but state intervention remained largely unproductive. In the sphere of royal administration the cantref, by a process probably already well advanced on the eve of the first Norman invasions, was largely replaced by a small unit, the commote, which was to remain, under Welsh and alien lords, the basic unit of administration and jurisdiction throughout the medieval period. Basing their arguments on the De excidio et conquestu Britanniae , a work by the 6th-century British monk Gildas that suggests a long-established Christian tradition of Romano-British derivation, they postulate that the trade and cultural contacts along the western seaways may have served not to introduce Christianity or to revitalize a lingering faith but to bring to an existing church a form of monasticism that had proved to be an important influence in the development of the Gallic church. Rebellion and annexation Both the crown and the marcher lords employed in the administration of their lands Welshmen drawn from an administrative class that had been fostered by the princes themselves. A petition to the Privy Council led to an act of Parliament in that required the translation of the Bible and the Book of Common Prayer into Welsh by Gwynedd, Powys, and Deheubarth The crucial years after saw also the initiation in northern Wales of a period of conflict by which the area was gradually recovered from Norman rule and the kingdoms of Gwynedd and Powys reconstituted as major political entities. His bid was revived at the end of the century by Giraldus Cambrensis. Many were forced off the land altogether, and it was not until the late 18th century that industry became a major outlet for a rural population which the land could not sustain. Three counties shires —Anglesey, Caernarvonshire , and Merioneth —were created and placed under the custody of a justice of North Wales. In the southeast Glywysig and Gwent emerged, to be united, though impermanently, to form Morgannwg. But neither Edward nor his successors attempted any far-reaching changes in the organization of the March, and political fractionization persisted over the next two centuries. Social trends and the interplay of indigenous and foreign influences were reflected in domestic architecture. Before the close of the 10th century Maredudd ap Owain died , a grandson of Hywel Dda, brought the northern and western kingdoms once more into a transitory unity. Llywelyn had thereby brought into being a Principality of Wales composed of the lands that had formed the 12th-century kingdoms of Gwynedd, Powys, and Deheubarth as well as parts of the March. The resilience of a native culture no longer able to depend upon traditional sources of patronage showed itself in a patriotic fervour to preserve a cultural heritage threatened by progressive Anglicization. Norman progress in southern Wales in the reign of William I —87 was limited to the colonization of Gwent in the southeast. Political stability enabled these territories to recover from the depredations of the Norman period, and the rulers sought to increase the resources of their demesne lands both by exploiting the labour services of bondmen and by providing some bondmen with more favourable tenurial conditions as an incentive to the colonization of marginal lands. Incurring the animosity of churchmen and other Dissenters alike, they were repressed with a severity experienced only by Roman Catholics and forced into emigration to Pennsylvania , in large numbers. Attempts during the next two centuries to bring the Welsh kingdoms west of the dike into a political unity proved to be only partially successful and impermanent. In the period —07 the royal government lost control of the greater part of Wales, and in some areas the insurrection remained unextinguished several years later. Advances from several bases along the Welsh border enabled Norman lords to establish the major lordships of Cardigan , Pembroke , Brecon , and Glamorgan. Linguistic study suggests that the native language, known to scholars as Brittonic or Brythonic, was infused with Latin terms, though distinction needs to be made between borrowings of the period of Roman rule and the scholarly borrowings of subsequent periods. On the other hand, small gathered churches of Congregationalists and Baptists , whose theology was Calvinist and whose belief and personal conduct were governed by a strict code expounded in their church covenant , established the Dissenting tradition within rural communities and small towns. His death in meant that the most powerful ruler of independent Wales was destroyed only a few years before the Norman forces came to the Anglo-Welsh frontier.
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