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Key Independent Variables Individual-level social learning constructs Parental violence is based on an item that asked respondents how often their parents push, slap, or hit them during disagreements. Information was collected on respondents' changes, if any, in marital status, relationship status, living arrangements, and reasons for separation where applicable. However, some researchers suggest that it is inappropriate to conceptualize the intergenerational transmission of violence as an inevitable process Thornberry, Knight, and Lovegrove Longitudinal analyses have also shown that, for males, deviant peer associations and hostile talk about women among peers during adolescence are significantly and positively associated with aggression toward a romantic partner in young adulthood Capaldi et al. As with school-level friend violence, this measure reflects the percentage of respondents within each school who report being violent with their partners. Related to this social learning process, definitions of what constitutes cheating, or non-exclusivity, in romantic relationships vary.
We develop a third indicator focusing on dating norms; specifically, the prevalence of non-exclusivity across the various school contexts. We estimate zero-order models for the key independent variables, followed by a series of nested multivariate models. This investigation of extra-familial influences thus includes attention to school-level a violence, b reports of non-exclusivity, and c TDV, as well as traditional peer and family indicators. The final analytic sample thus consists of respondents male and female respondents. This association is also demonstrated in studies of the phenomenon of teen dating violence TDV Simon and Furman ; Wolfe and Wekerle ; Wolfe et al. The restricted use data contains Waves , and differs from the public use data by including FIPS codes for state of marriage and state of residence, town or city where the respondent was raised, and qualitative variables revised by the Principal Investigator Waves , consisting of respondent's answers to how they first met their partner, the quality of their relationship in their own words, why they broke up if applicable and if they have an open relationship. Acts that are seen as constituting various types of infidelity are subject to direct observation and gossip, as well as other forms of communication about how such violations of trust should be viewed and managed. The first measure is based on the highest level of education reported in the parent questionnaire, represented by two dichotomous variables: Respondents reporting positively about at least one of these measures are coded as 1, whereas only those respondents reporting they have never engaged in any of the three behaviors are coded as 0. Recognizing areas of overlap in risk factors i. Thus, it is generally recognized that friendships necessarily unfold against a broader socio- economic landscape that may directly and indirectly influence a range of behavioral outcomes, including violence Bronfenbrenner ; Cohen and Felson ; Morenoff, Sampson and Groves ; Sampson and Raudenbush ; Sampson, Raudenbush and Earls Accordingly, all public school districts within the larger county participated in the present study. Contextual factors School-level friend violence is based on responses to four items: The Role of Adolescent Friendships Recognizing that peer relationships are central to child and adolescent development e. This suggests the utility of investigating further the potential impact of such extra-familial influences on the odds of experiencing teen dating violence. It is also noteworthy that there is significant variation across the various school-level indices i. Due to the skewed distribution of responses to these items, TDV perpetration is dichotomized, where individuals reporting perpetrating any of these acts are coded as 1. Accordingly, we determine whether school environments characterized by relatively liberal attitudes about dating relationships indexed by non-exclusivity in relationships influence the odds of experiencing TDV perpetration. Finally, school-level non-exclusivity is the aggregated response to the individual-level non-exclusivity measure. Within the confines of the school, unique status systems and norms emerge that draw from the broader neighborhood environments in which they are located but are never an exact replica Corsaro , ; Eder et al. Those individuals reporting on TDV in their most recent, but not current, relationship serve as the contrast category. Longitudinal analyses have also shown that, for males, deviant peer associations and hostile talk about women among peers during adolescence are significantly and positively associated with aggression toward a romantic partner in young adulthood Capaldi et al. A victimization scale composed of the same measures is used in supplemental analyses in which victimization is the dependent variable. In prior examinations of peer effects, researchers have explored the role of social skills deficits Linder and Collins , antisocial friends Capaldi ; Foshee et al. In terms of the school-level indicators we find the average score of friend violence is These studies of neighborhood effects suggest the general importance of the broader social context, yet scholars with an interest in youth development e. In this study, school climate is measured by the percentage of students at each university who report being physically attacked or who injured a dating partner in the last year.
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